Kansas entered the Union as the Less than three months later, on April 12, Fort Sumter
    was attacked by Confederate troops and the Civil War were afloat that President Abraham
    Lincoln was to be kidnapped or assassinated.  James H. Lane, a senator from Kansas,
    recruited 120 Kansas men who were in the city and organized them into the "Frontier
    Guard."  For nearly three weeks they were billeted in the White House to protect the

    Most Kansans strongly favored the cause of the Union.  Governor Charles Robinson  began
    recruiting troops for the Union armies, and Senator Lane returned from Washington to do
    the same.  Before the war ended, the federal government issued several calls for troops,
    asking Kansas for a total of Kansas, this was a remarkable showing for an infant state with
    only 30,000 men of military age.  Kansas soldiers suffered nearly 8,500 casualties.

    Confederate units took place along the Missouri border in 1861, but the first real action for
    Kansas troops came at the Battle of Wilson's Creek, near Springfield, Missouri, on August
    10, 1861. Both the First and Second Kansas Volunteer Infantry regiments were engaged,
    but the First saw the most action and suffered heavy losses.  During 1862 several Kansas
    units served in campaigns in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi.  In Arkansas a brigade
    commanded by James G. Blunt, the first Kansan to become a major-general, fought in the
    battles of Rhea's Mills, Cane Hill, and Prairie Grove.  Kansas regiments, both white and
    black, were used in the Indian territory in 1862 and 1863.  In 1863 Kansans also served
    under General U.S. Grant in the Vicksburg campaign, under General Rosencrans at
    Chickamauga, and against Morgan's Raiders in Indiana.

    Price's RaidIn 1864 several Kansas units were stationed in Arkansas.  There had been no
    organized warfare in Kansas other than occasional raids.  That fall, however, Confederate
    forces under General Sterling Price moved objective was St. Louis; they also were ordered
    to seize supplies and rally Missourians to the Southern cause. Price failed to reach St. Louis
    as Union troops forced him to swing west toward Kansas City.  Actions were fought at
    Lexington, and the Big and Little Blue Rivers. Fighting continued at Westport and on
    October 23, 1864, Price was defeated and forced to retreat south along the Kansas-
    Missouri border. He decided to try to seize Fort Scott, a Union supply center.  He was
    defeated again at the Battle of Mine Creek in Linn County, Kansas, by Federal troops under
    Generals Samuel Curtis, Alfred Pleasanton, and Blunt. Approximately 25,000 men were
    involved in the pursuit and series of rear guard actions on October 25.  Nearly 10,000
    soldiers were engaged at Mine Creek alone, the largest battle fought on Kansas soil. This
    Union victory ended any threat of a Southern invasion of the state.

    Flag from Quantrill's raidMore devastating than any battle between regular troops in
    Kansas were the raids and pillaging of guerrilla bands. Such raids and atrocities were
    committed by both sides, but by far the most notorious came on August 21, 1863. William
    Clark Quantrill and several hundred followers attacked Lawrence at dawn.  By the time
    they Lawrence, much of the town had been destroyed and nearly 200 men and boys had
    been killed.
Civil War
    Paola played a key role as Union supply depot during Civil War

    Kansas was susceptible to attack along the southern and eastern borders at the outset of
    the Civil War. There was much excitement along the eastern border of Kansas due to
    anticipated invasion by Confederate forces. Kansans knew western Missouri still harbored
    strong feelings over abolitionist raids, and in the southwest corner of Missouri, lead mines
    were important to the southern war effort.

    In order to protect Kansas’ border, Sen./Gen. James H. Lane opened a recruiting office in
    Leavenworth on Aug. 4, 1861. That same evening, Lane “held a ‘Great War Meeting’ in
    front of the Planters’ house.” According to Albert Castel in “Civil War in Kansas,” Lane told
    the crowd that Kansas was in immediate danger of invasion, and Kansas would have to be
    defended by its own men.

    In Dec. 1861, the Union Army established a military post at Paola. The 10th Kansas
    Volunteer Infantry was organized at Paola on April 3, 1862. The 12th Kansas Volunteer
    Infantry was mustered into service at Paola in September 1862. In September 1864, the
    17th Kansas Volunteer Infantry was ordered to Paola based on reports of Gen. Sterling
    Price’s invasion of Missouri.

    Kansas’ eastern border was defended by a series of outposts established at Aubrey,
    Coldwater Grove, Rockville and Trading Post.

    Paola was very active during the Civil War. The administration of Union forces was
    conducted as a district and subdistrict headquarters. Paola was a major supply depot for
    Union military units as they passed through on their way to engagements in Missouri,
    Arkansas and Indian Territory.

    Kansas soldiers fought east of the Mississippi River. An example is the 10th Volunteer
    Infantry, which fought with distinction in Tennessee and Mississippi and ended its service in
    1865 at Montgomery, Ala.

    Jim Bousman is a volunteer at the Miami County Historical Museum
    Looking back at the pivotal moments of the
    American Civil War

    On Sept. 1, 1864, the Confederate Army abandoned Atlanta to
    William Tecumseh Sherman’s Army of the West. Thus began
    the fall of the Confederate Armies and the eventual end of the
    Civil War in 1865.

    Several years before Gen. Phil Sheridan and Gen. Sherman
    began their “scorched earth” policy in the east, the concept of
    “total war” was an everyday event along the Kansas–Missouri
    border. Three years before “a crow flying over the Shenandoah
    Valley needed a haversack to carry food,” jayhawkers and
    Union soldiers were burning out local southern sympathizers.
    Why? Because the guerrilla bands led by Quantrill, Anderson
    and Todd were sustained by the local population.

    Without the local population’s support, these bands would not
    have been able to operate so far from the Confederate base of
    supplies in Arkansas. The devastation caused by Order No. 11
    drove the guerrilla bands into central Missouri, which
    positioned them to support General Sterling Price’s invasion
    into Missouri.

    With the Confederacy cut in half by the fall of Vicksburg, the
    Confederate troops assigned to the Trans-Mississippi Theater
    of War were isolated from the rest of the southern armies. In
    May of 1864, Sherman began his march to Atlanta, and
    Sheridan started his Valley Campaign. To apply additional
    pressure on the Confederacy and to keep Confederate troops
    in the Trans-Mississippi, General Frederick Steel started his
    Camden Campaign and General Nathaniel Banks his Red River
    Campaign. Both campaigns resulted in a Union defeat.

    The Confederate Armies and Confederate Gen. E. Kirby Smith,
    commander of the Trans-Mississippi, were desperate for arms,
    supplies and men. The generals also recognized a need to
    keep the Union Army from transferring soldiers from Missouri
    and Kansas to reinforce General Grant and Sherman. The only
    place in the Trans-Mississippi where adequate supplies and
    men could be secured was in Missouri. (Note: Smith did receive
    supplies across the Mississippi, but Union Naval patrols kept
    the supplies to a minimum. Additional supplies were obtained

    On Aug. 4, 1864, Gen. Smith ordered Gen. Price to make St.
    Louis his objective and take possession of its military supplies
    and arms. The order also said that if Price was unsuccessful, to
    head for Kansas and strip it of livestock and military supplies
    as he retreated to Arkansas and Indian Territory.

    On Sept. 19, 1864, Gen. Price and his 12,000-man “Army of
    Missouri” crossed the Arkansas border.

    By Jim Bousman Miami County Historical Museum
Hannes Poetter Design and Sponsorship - all rights reserved
Miami County Historical Museum - 12 E. Peoria, - Paola, KS 66071 Phone: 913-294-4940
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